Git is a powerful source control system. It's free, and open source. It's pretty simple to use, it's intended to handle both small and large projects, and it's so freakingly FAST.
Unlike SVN and TFS, Git is not centeralized. This means that every Git clone is a fully fledged repository with all versions and history information available.
Git is written in C (well, mostly) and is available for many platforms. If you are a linux guy you can download Git from here and if you are a Windows fellow then download msygit.
This post is aimed to be a tutorial introduction to Git. Together we will walk through the process of creating the repository, adding initial files to the repository, committing those files, changing them, creating branches, viewing differences, resolving conflicts, merging and finally pushing to the centeralized repository.
git init-dbThis will create the repository for you (and will also create a default "master" branch). Now enter:
git add -ato add all the files in this directory to the repository. You can select specific files by specifying the required file name like so:
git add filename.cssThe selected files are now tracked by Git to your repsoitory, to commit those files to the repository (the LOCAL repository, remember?) :
git commit -aThis will open vim for you to enter a commit message. Enter your message, and quite vi, then Git will commit your changes to the DB.
If you're not familiar with vim or vi, to quite the editor saving the changes type ":wq" -that's colon wq- or ":q" to quit without saving. Or you can specify -m to the git commit command followed by the message you want in double quotes, like so:
git commit -a -m "my initial commit"
Now try editing some files and then, to view the changes, type:
git diffThis will highlight the changes between your uncommitted version and the last committed version. If you want to see the history of your changes at any time, user:
git whatchangedor use:
git whatchanged -pto see the complete differences at each change.
git branch testBranch git branchThe first command will create testBranch for you and the second command will list all the available branches on your repository (by far there should be only testBranch and the master branch "master").
Note: The selected branch has an * displayed before it.
Now enter :
git checkout testBranchto switch to the newly created branch. Try editing somefiles, and show the diffs.
git diffYou should now see the changes you made, commit those changes. And switch to the master branch:
git commit -a git checkout masterIf you look at the files you just edited when you were on testBranch -after switching to the master branch- you would notice that the changes you made while you were on testBranch are gone. However, if you switch to the testBranch again you will see your changes there. If you're happy with the changes you made on testBranch, you can merge those changes to the master branch by using the following command:
git merge testBranchIf there is no confilcts, you're allset. If there are conflicts you will have to resolve them manually and then commit the file. Git will show you which files have conflicts.
Now, if you are done with the test branch and want to delte it, use:
git branch -d testBranch
If you used to be a TFS and VSS guy like myself, take a deep sigh of relief and enjoy Git.
I will try to blog more on Git on the next posts, stay tuned!